Monday, December 31, 2007

Croydon Airport

Croydon Airport is in south London on the restrictions of the London Boroughs of Croydon and Sutton. It was once the main airport for London, previous to it was replaced by Northolt Aerodrome, London Heathrow Airport and London Gatwick Airport.. Beddingt on Aerodrome, one of a numeral of small airfields around London which had been created for protection against the Zeppelin raids in about May 1915, and Waddon Aerodrome of 1918, a test-flight aerodrome adjoining National Aircraft Factory No1. At the end of that war, the two airfields were shared into London's official airport as the gateway for all international flights to and from the capital. Croydon Aerodrome opened on 29 March 1920, in the mid 1920s, the landing field was extended, some adjacent roads being permanently closed to allow heavier airliners to land and depart safely. A new complex of buildings was constructed adjoining Purley Way, together with the first purpose-designed air terminal in the world, the Aerodrome Hotel and extensive hangars, all opening on 2 May 1928. The terminal building, the booking hall within it with its colonnade balustraded in the geometrical design typical of the period, and the Aerodrome hotel were all built in the Art Deco style of the 1920s and 1930s.

Monday, December 24, 2007

Qantas Empire Airways

In Australia in 1934 Imperial and Qantas (Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd) created Qantas Empire Airways Limited to extended services in Southeast Asia. But it was not until 1937 with the Short Empire flying boats that majestic could offer an 'all air' service from Southampton to the Empire. The journey to the Cape consisted of flights to Marseille, Rome, Brindisi, Athens, Alexandria, Khartoum, Port Bell, Kisumu and beyond by land-based craft to Nairobi, Mbeya and eventually Cape Town. Survey flights were also completed across the Atlantic and to New Zealand. By mid-1937 Imperial had completed its thousandth service to the Empire. Speed Wings Over the World, statue on a portal above the Empire Terminal's main entrance; by Eric Broadbent The Empire Air Mail Program began in July 1937, delivering anyplace for 1½ d./oz. By mid-1938 a hundred tons of mail had been delivered to India and a related amount to Africa. In the same year, construction was started on the Empire Terminal, intended by A. Lakeman and with a statue by Eric Broadbent, Speed Wings Over the World gracing the entrance above the main entrance. The terminal provided train associations to flying boats at Southampton and to the since closed Croydon Airport. The terminal operated as recently as 1980. Imperial Airways Speedbird logoCompared to extra operators it was lagging behind in Europe and it was suggested that all European operations be handed over to British Airways Ltd (founded in 1935) which had more contemporary aircraft and better organization. However in November 1939 both Imperial and British Airways Ltd were compound into a new state-owned national carrier: British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC). The new carrier adopted the Imperial Speedbird logo, which has evolved into the current British Airways Speedmarque, and the term continues to be used as BA's call sign.

Monday, December 17, 2007

Commercial Flight

The first commercial flight was in April 1924, when a on a daily basis London-Paris service was opened. Additional services to other European destinations were started all the way through the summer. The first fresh airliner was commissioned by Imperial Airways in November 1924. In the first year of process the company carried 11,395 passengers and 212,380 letters. The extension of service to the British Empire was not begun until 1927 when, with the adding of six new aircraft, a service was instituted from Cairo to Basra. But the first service from London for Karachi did not start until 1929 using recently purchased Short S.8 Calcutta flying boats, even then the passengers were transported by train from Paris to the Mediterranean where the Short flying boats were. In February 1931 a weekly service stuck between London and Tanganyika was started as part of the proposed route to Cape Town and in April an experimental London-Australia air mail flight took place; the mail was transferred at the Netherlands East Indies, and took 26 days in total to reach Sydney. The buy of the 8 Handley Page 42 four-engined airliners boosted the range of services, in 1932 the service to Africa was extended to Cape Town.

Wednesday, December 12, 2007

Imperial Airways

Imperial Airways Imperial Airways was an near the beginning British commercial air transport company, operating from 1924 to 1939. Created following the advice of the government Hambling commission in 1923- that the main existing aircraft companies should be merged to create a company which would be strong enough to develop Britain's external air services and presented a £1m subsidy over ten years if they merged. Imperial Airways Limited was created in March 1924 from the British Marine Air Navigation Company Ltd (three aircraft), the Daimler Airway (five aircraft), Handley-Page Transport Ltd (three aircraft) and the Instone Air Line Ltd (two aircraft). The land operations were fully based at Croydon Airport.

Monday, November 26, 2007

Privatisation - British Airways

Sir John King, later Lord King, was selected as Chairman in 1981 with the mission of preparing the airline for privatisation.When King knew Colin Marshall as CEO in 1983. King was credited with turning just about the loss-making giant into one of the most profitable air carriers in the world, boldly claiming to be "The World's Favourite Airline", while many other large airlines struggled. The airline's flotilla and route map were overhauled in the early years of King's tenure, with brand and advertising experts being recruited to overhaul the airline's image. Over 23,000 jobs were shed in the early 1980s, though King managed the extensive trick of boosting staff morale and modernise operations at the same time. Lord King also recognised the importance of Concorde to the company's business plan, and used the supersonic airliner to win business customers by guaranteeing a certain number of Concorde upgrades in return for corporate accounts with BA.

The flag carrier was privatised and floated on the London Stock Exchange in February 1987 by the traditional government, with the initial share offering being 11 times oversubscribed. In April 1988 British Airways effected the contentious takeover of Britain's second-force airline British Caledonian, and in 1992 absorbed Gatwick-based carrier Dan-Air.

Monday, November 19, 2007

British Airways

British Airways is the major airline of the United Kingdom. It is also one of the biggest airlines in the world, with more flights from Europe across the Atlantic than any other operator. Its main hubs are London Heathrow and London Gatwick, with wide-reaching European and conjugal shorthaul networks, including smaller hubs at other UK airports including Manchester, from which some longer-haul flights are also operated.

The airline's origins go back to the birth of civil aviation and the original days after the First World War. On 25 August 1919 its predecessor company, Aircraft Transport and Travel, launched the world's first daily international scheduled air service, between London and Paris. On 31 March 1924, Britain's four hatchling airlines - Instone, Handley Page, Daimler Airways and British Air Marine Navigation - merged to form Imperial Airways, which developed its Empire routes to Australia and Africa.

Monday, November 12, 2007

Luxury box

Luxury box or luxury group is the North American term for a special seating section in arenas, stadiums and additional sports venues. In the United Kingdom the provisions second-hand are corporate box, executive box and private box. They are characteristically in the mid-section of the stadium, affording the best views of the sporting event. Some have glass panels that can be retracted, in order for the spectators to feel closer to the action of the sporting event. The inside of a luxury box characteristically includes a bar, several televisions sets, a row of seats and a private bathroom. The boxes are usually catered, with shrimp and sushi being common foods. The rent to a box also comes with a personal parking space, and a private entrance.

Monday, November 05, 2007

Knife box

The knife-box is one of the most pleasant of the minor pieces of furniture which we owe to the artistic taste and mechanical ingenuity of the English cabinet-makers of the final quarter of the 18th century. Some of the most graceful were the works of Adam, Hepplewhite and Sheraton. Occasionally flat-topped boxes, they were most regularly either rod-shaped, or tall and narrow with a sloping tip necessitated by a series of raised veins for exhibiting the handles of knives and the bowls of spoons. Mahogany and satinwood were the woods most regularly employed, and they were occasionally inlaid with marqueterie or edged with boxwood. These attractive receptacles still exist in large numbers; they are often converted into stationery cabinets.

Monday, October 29, 2007


shoebox is, exactly as its name implies, a cardboard box which holds a double of shoes. It is usually acquired when one purchases a pair of shoes. Shoeboxes have long been cherished for their versatility and are usually used for many tasks around the house, such as holding trading cards, photos, and just about anything else.

It can also be used as an adjective to describe being unfairly treated. An example would be "Don't you shoebox me!" It is also used to describe someone with a closed minded to way of thinking who prefers to generalize others unfavorably.

Monday, October 22, 2007

Types of Boxes

Permanent Boxes

Numerous types of boxes are used in eternal installations. Some types are designed to be for the time being inhabited by workers.
Permanent boxes include the following:
Equipment boxes - Fuse box
Compartments - Luxury box , Mailbox
Shelters or booths - Police box , Signal box , Telephone box

Tuesday, October 16, 2007

Permanent boxes
Numerous types of boxes are used in stable installations. Some types are designed to be provisionally inhabited by workers.

Permanent boxes include the following:

Equipment boxes

· Fuse box

A distribution board (known in the United States as a (circuit) breaker panel, panelboard, or load center or for old ones, fuse box) is a growing enclosure for several electrical circuit breakers. These are usually placed in two columns. Small single-phase boxes, with the waves in just one row, are known as consumer units in Britain. Distribution boards are characteristically found in central locations inside buildings and often serve as the point at which electricity is distributed within a building. Circuit breakers can be used to physically de-energize electrical circuits when the downstream wiring is being serviced.

Circuit breaker panels are constantly dead front, that is, the operator of the circuit breakers cannot contact live electrical parts. During servicing of the sharing board itself, though, when the cover has been detached and the cables are visible, North American breaker panels commonly have some live parts exposed. British distribution boards usually have the live parts enclosed to IP20, even when the cover has been removed for servicing.

Monday, October 08, 2007


This article is about the container or vessel called a box. For other uses, see Box (disambiguation).

An elaborate wooden box Boxes are extremely variable receptacles. When no shape is described, a typical rectangular box may be expected. Nevertheless, a box may have a horizontal cross section that is square, elongated, round or oval; sloped or domed top surfaces, or non-vertical sides. A box normally may be opened by raising, sliding or removing the lid, which may be hinged and/or secure by a catch, clasp, or lock. Whatever its shape or purpose or the material of which it is formed, it is the direct descendant of the chest, one of the most ancient articles of marital furniture. Its uses are innumerable, and the name, preceded by a qualifying adjective, has been given to many objects of imaginative or antiquarian interest. Objects are often placed inside boxes, for a multiplicity of reasons - see storage.

Tuesday, September 25, 2007


In chemistry, a metal is a ingredient that readily loses electrons to form positive ions and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. Metals form ionic bonds with non-metals. They are sometimes described as a web of positive ions surrounded by a cloud of delocalized electrons. The metals are one of the three groups of elements as eminent by their ionization and bonding properties, along with the metalloids and nonmetals. On the periodic table, a diagonal line drawn from boron separates the metals from the nonmetals. Most elements on this line are metalloids, sometimes called semi-metals; elements to the lower left are metals; elements to the upper right are nonmetals.

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

The structure of pollen

Each pollen grain contain vegetative cells only one in the greater part flowering plant but several in other seed plants and a generative cell contain a tube nucleus that produces the pollen tube and a generative nucleus that divide to form the two sperm cells. The group of cells is surrounded by a cellulose cell wall and a thick, rough outer wall made of sporopollenin.

Pollen is created in the microsporangium contained in the anther of an angiosperm flower, male cone of a coniferous plant, or male cone of other seed plants. Pollen grains come in a broad multiplicity of shapes, sizes, and surface markings characteristic of the species see photomicrograph at right. Most, but surely not all, are spherical, Pollen grains of pines, firs, and spruces are wing. The minimum pollen grain that of the Forget-me-not plant (Myosotis sp.), is approximately 6 µm (0.006 mm) in diameter.

Pollen grains may have furrows, the course of which classify the pollen as colpate or sulcate. The number of furrows or pores helps categorize the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi (tricolpate), and other groups having one sulcus.

Tuesday, September 11, 2007


From the Greek word "τρέπω" importance to turn or mix. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere; it starts at the surface and extends to between 7 km (23,000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (60,000 ft) at the equator, with some distinction due to weather factors. The troposphere has a enormous deal of vertical mixing due to solar heating at the surface. This heating warms air masses, which makes them less intense so they rise. When an air mass raises the force upon it decreases so it expands, doing work against the contrasting pressure of the surrounding air. To do work is to use energy, so the temperature of the air mass decreases. As the temperature decreases, water vapor in the air mass may concentrate or solidify, releasing latent heat that further uplifts the air mass. This process determines the maximum rate of refuse of temperature with height, called the adiabatic lapse rate.

Wednesday, September 05, 2007


A whaleboat is a type of open boat that is comparatively narrow and pointed at both ends, enabling it to move either forwards or backwards equally well. It was initially developed for whaling, and later became popular for work along beaches, as it does not need to be turned around for beaching or refloating.
Whaleboats are usually oar-powered, although in whaling use often had a dismountable mast and sails, too. After 1850 most were fitted with a centerboard for marine. When sailing, steering was with a rudder; when rowing, navigation was done with an oar held over the stern. Whaleboats used in whaling had a stout post mounted on the aft deck, approximately which the steersman would cinch the rope once the whale had been harpooned, and by which the whale would drag the boat awaiting it was killed.
The term "whaleboat" may be used casually of larger whalers, or of a boat used for whale watching.

Tuesday, August 28, 2007


Vegetable is a cookery term which usually refers to an edible part of a plant. The definition is traditional rather than scientific and is somewhat random and subjective. All parts of herbaceous plants eaten as food by humans, whole or in part, are in general considered vegetables. Mushrooms, though belong to the biological kingdom fungi, and are also commonly considered vegetables. In common, vegetables are consideration of as being savory, and not sweet, although there are many exceptions. Nuts, grains, herbs, spices and culinary fruits are usually not exact vegetables.

Monday, August 20, 2007

Harrington jacket

A Harrington jacket is a type of tiny, lightweight jacket, made of cotton, polyester, wool or suede — generally with a tartan or check-patterned lining.

The initial Harrington-style jackets were made by British clothing company, Baracuta, in the 1930s; the company is still making the same model, the G9. This style of jacket got the nickname Harrington because it was worn by the personality Rodney Harrington (played by Ryan O'Neal) in the 1960s television program Peyton Place; John Simmons, who opened 'The Ivy Shop', Richmond, London, claims to have coined this explanation.

Monday, August 13, 2007


Gasoline engines have the benefit over diesel in being lighter and able to work at higher rotating speeds and they are the usual choice for fitting in high presentation sports cars. Continuous development of gasoline engines for over a hundred years has formed improvements in efficiency and reduced pollution. The carburetor was used on nearly all road car engines awaiting the 1980s but it was long realized better control of the fuel/air mixture could be achieved with fuel inoculation.

Indirect fuel injection was initially used in aircraft engines from 1909, in racing car engines from the 1930s, and road cars from the late 1950s. Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is now starting to appear in making vehicles such as the 2007 BMW MINI. Wear out gases are also cleaned up by appropriate a catalytic converter into the tire out system. Clean air legislation in many of the car industries most important markets have made both catalysts and fuel injection virtually common fittings. Most modern gasoline engines are also able of running with up to 15% ethanol mixed into the gasoline - older vehicles may have seals and hoses that can be wounded by ethanol. With a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentration as high as 85%. 100% ethanol is used in some parts of the world (such as Brazil), but vehicles must be in progress on pure gasoline and switched over to ethanol once the engine is running. Most gasoline engine cars can also run on LPG with the addition up of an LPG tank for fuel storage and carburetion modifications to add an LPG mixer. LPG produces fewer toxic emissions and is a popular fuel for fork lift trucks that have to activate inside buildings

Monday, August 06, 2007

Essentials of healthy life-cleanliness a brief review

Health is wealth so preserve it. Life is short so use it in the right way. Cleanliness merely fits with the apt meaning of being free from dirt, dust, germs and bad smells. A recent shift has now taken place to recognize that 'germs' may play a major role in our immune systems. So experts say washing hands frequently, especially when in an environment of many people with infections and diseases. Washing is one of the best ways to achieve cleanliness. Have a brief overlook on the following issue to be aware of how to keep one self clean.
A step way process regarding cleanliness of hands is given below:

• Use warm water
• But avoid scorching your hands.
• Use anti-bacterial soap or hand wash.
• Wash between fingers and use paper towels to wipe off.
Washing of hands has to be followed
• Before eating
• After eating
• After using the toilet
• After playing outdoor games
• After attending to a sick person
• After blowing nose, coughing, or sneezing; and after handling pets.
The proverb "Cleanliness is next to Godliness," a common phrase that describes humanity's high opinion of being clean. Purposes of cleanliness include health, beauty and to avoid the spreading of germs .If your hands have any kind of skin cut or infection, wash hands with an anti bacterial soap.

Monday, July 30, 2007

Wireless Application Protocol

WAP is an open global standard for application that uses wireless communication. Its main application is to allow access to the internet from a mobile phone or PDA.

A WAP browser is to grant all of the fundamental services of a computer based web browser but cut down to function within the limits of a mobile phone. WAP is now the protocol used for the mainstream of the world's mobile internet sites, known as WAP sites. Presently the Japanese i-mode system is the only other major competing wireless data protocol.

Mobile internet sites, or WAP sites, are websites written in, or vigorously transformed to, WML (Wireless Markup Language) and accessed via the WAP browser.

Before the introduction of WAP, service providers had enormously restricted opportunities to offer interactive data services.

Monday, July 23, 2007


The term "conception" commonly refers to fertilization, but is sometimes defined as implantation or even "the point at which human life begins," and is thus a subject of semantic arguments about the beginning of pregnancy, within the abortion deliberate. Gastrulating is the point in development when the implanted blast cyst develops three germ layers, the endoderm, the exoderm and the mesoderm. It is at this point that the inherited code of the father becomes fully occupied in the development of the embryo. Until this point in development, twinning is probable. Additionally, interspecies hybrids which have no chance of growth survive until gastrulation. However this stance is not entirely necessary since human developmental biology literature refers to the "concepts" and the medical literature refers to the "products of conception" as the post-implantation embryo and its surrounding membranes. The term "conception" is not generally used in scientific literature because of its variable definition and suggestion.

Monday, July 16, 2007

Seedless fruits

Seedlessness is a significant feature of some fruits of commerce. Marketable cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits especially navel oranges and mandarin oranges, table grapes, grapefruit, and watermelons are appreciated for their seedlessness. In some type, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy, where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not need pollination. Most seedless citrus fruits need a pollination stimulus; bananas and pineapples do not. Seedlessness in table grapes consequences from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is fashioned by fertilization, an occurrence known as stenospermocarpy which requires normal pollination and fertilization.

Wednesday, July 11, 2007


In the Maori language, waka are Maori watercraft, usually canoes. Similar craft are encounter in Polynesia, with connected names such as vaka. Waka range is from small, lightweight canoes, such as waka tiwai used for fishing individuals, during very large waka taua, manned by up to eighty paddlers and up to fourty mtrs in length, large double-hulled canoes for oceanic voyaging.

Many waka are single-hulled vessels locate from hollowed tree trunks. Small waka consist of an only piece as large waka typically consist of some pieces jointed and lashed together. Some waka, mainly in the Chatham Islands, were not usual canoes but were constructed from raupo stalks. Ocean waka, Paddled could be in any size, but were usually propelled by sail. Waka taua are paddled to put across their mana.

Small efficient waka are commonly plain and simple. Superior canoes waka taua in testing are extremely carved. Waka taua are no longer used in fighting but frequently for official purposes.

Wednesday, June 20, 2007


Sharpies are long, thin sailboats with plane bottoms, enormously shallow draft, centerboards and straight, flaring side. They are assumed to have originated in the New Haven, Connecticut area of Long Island Sound, United States, for the oystering industry, which thrived in New Haven harbor with its wide, shallow waters.

The type is believed to have evolved from the Native American trench canoes that were initially used in the area. European setters changed the original dugout form so that the sides and base were flat, to improve steadiness and hauling capacity.

It was around 1840-1850 that the initial true sharpies were being built in the New Haven area. These were long boats, approximately 27 feet or so, crewed by one man and rigged as a cat-ketch, with three mast steps; one at the bend over, one amidships and one in between. In light whether, two masts would be stepped at the duck and amidships, but in heavier weather, a single mast would be stepped in the middle. Larger models, up to 35 feet, were crewed by two men. The New Haven models were typified by plumb bows with the base just out of the water and surrounding, counter-sterns.

Monday, June 11, 2007

Pleasure craft

A pleasure craft is a boat used for individual leisure or sometimes sporting purpose. Typically such watercrafts are automatic and are used for holidays, for example on a river or canal. Enjoyment craft are normally kept at a marina. They are not essentially intended for speed. They may comprise accommodation for use while moored to the bank. Many narrow boats have been transformed into pleasure craft from their previous use for cargo transport on canals.

Tuesday, June 05, 2007


A dugout is a boat which is essentially a hollowed tree trunk; other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. Monoxylon (Pl: monoxyla) is Greek -- mono (single) + xylon (tree) -- and is frequently used in classic Greek texts.
Dugouts are the oldest boats archaeologists contain found. Within Germany they are called Einbaum (English translation: One tree). Einbaum dug-out boat finds in Germany day back to the limestone Age. The length of bark and hide canoes, these dugout boats were used by American Indians. This is probably because they are made of enormous pieces of wood, which tend to preserve better than, e.g., bark canoes.
Construction of a dugout begins with the collection of a log of appropriate dimensions. Sufficient wood needed to be removed to make the vessel comparatively light in weight and buoyant, yet still strong enough to support the crew and cargo. Particular types of wood were often favorite based on their strength, durability, and weight. The shape of the boat is then fashioned to reduce drag, with sharp ends at the bow and stern.
First the bark is detached from the exterior. Before the exterior of metal tools, dugouts were then hollowed-out using controlled fires. The burnt wood was then detached using an adze. Another method using tools is to chop out parallel notches crossways the interior span of the wood, then split out and remove the wood from between the notches. Once hollowed out, the core was dressed and smoothed out with a knife or adze.
For traveling the rougher waters of the ocean, dugouts can be fitted with outriggers. One or two smaller logs are mounted parallel to the major hull by long poles.

Monday, May 28, 2007

Jet boat

A jet boat is a boat propel by a jet of water twisted out from the back of the craft. Unlike a powerboat or motorboat that uses a propeller in the water behind the boat; a jet boat draws the water from under the boat into a pump-jet inside the boat, and then expels it through a needle at the stern.
Jet boats were originally designed by Sir William Hamilton (who invented the water jet in 1954) for operation in the fast-flowing and shallow rivers of New Zealand, especially to overcome the problem of propellers striking rocks in such waters, although Italian inventor Second Camping had demonstrated a similar vessel as early as 1931 in Venice.
The difference between Campini's and Hamilton's inventions is that Campini's water jet had a very short lifetime in operation due to some unsolved material problems. Hamilton, unlike Camping, filed for a patent. Jet boats are extremely maneuverable, and many can, from full speed, be upturned and brought to a stop within their own length, in a maneuver known as a Hamilton turn.

Monday, May 21, 2007

Kerala houseboats

The houseboats in Kerala, south India, are huge, slow-moving, foreign barges used for leisure trips. They are a reworked model of Kettuvallams (in the Malayalam language, Kettu means "tied with ropes", and vallam means "boat"), which, in earlier times, were used to carry rice and spices from Kuttanad to the Kochi port. Kerala houseboats were measured a suitable means of transportation.
The fame of Kettuvalloms has returned in the function as major tourist attractions. Many come across the Kettuvallom an ideal means of explore the beauty of the Kerala backwaters.
Such a houseboat is about 60 to 70 feet (about 18 to 21 meters) long and concerning 15 feet (about 5 meters) wide at the middle. The hull is made of wooden planks that are detained together by ropes of coconut fiber; the usual wood is 'Anjili'. The roof is completed with bamboo poles and palm leaves. The exterior of the boat is tinted with protective coats of cashew nut oil.

Monday, May 14, 2007


A ferry is a form of transport, typically a boat or ship, but also other forms, carrying (or ferrying) passengers and sometimes their vehicles. Ferries are also used to transport shipment (in Lorries and sometimes empowered freight containers) and even railroad cars. Most ferries operate on regular, everyday, return services. A foot-passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, is also known as waterbus or water taxi.
Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many riverside cities, allow direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels.
The busiest seaway in the world joined with Great Britain with the rest of Europe across the English Channel. Sailing mainly to french ports, such as Calais, Cherbourg-Osterville and Le Havre, ferries starting from the Great Britain also sail to Belgium, Denmark, The Netherlands, Norway and Spain. Some ferries carry mainly tourist traffic, but most also carry freight, and some are completely for the use of freight Lorries.
The great cruise ferries sail in the Baltic Sea between Finland, Sweden, Germany and Estonia and from Italy to Albania and Greece. In many ways, these ferries are like sail ships, but they can also carry hundreds of cars on car decks. In Britain, car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as RORO (roll-on, roll-off) for the effortlessness by which vehicles can board and leave.
In Australia, two Spirit of Tasmania ferries carry passenger and vehicles 300 kilometers across Bass Strait, which separate Tasmania from the Australian mainland. These run during the night but also contain day crossings in peak time. Both ferry are based in the northern Tasmanian port city of Devonport and sail to Melbourne, Victoria.

Monday, April 02, 2007

Spiral escalators

Spiral escalators acquire less horizontal space than straight escalators. However, in the early spiral designs were failures. For example, one spiral escalator constructed by Reno in combination with William Henry Aston and Scott Kietzman at London's Holloway Road Underground position in 1906 was dismantled almost right away and little of the mechanism survives. The Mitsubishi Electric Corporation has urbanized successful commercial designs and has contrived curved and spiral escalators since the 1980s.
Notable sets of spiral escalators are situated in the Westfield San Francisco Centre in San Francisco, California, and at Forum Shops at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, Nevada. The Times Square shopping mall in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong, also features four curved escalators, as do Wheelock Place in Singapore.

Wednesday, March 28, 2007

A Team Player

The superiority of being a team player is one that everyone should enjoy. A team player is someone with good qualities who makes contributions and has the force to motivate each one around him or her. This individuality can be used in many areas such as games, family life, and in the company. You are more expected to be hired in the production if you have and demonstrate the qualities of a team player. As the business climate gets tougher before it gets improved, it is time to hike the talk if you want to develop.

Managers will require all the cooperation they can get. To land a high paying job with a major business you need to be a team player. Having good qualities is one of the most significant characters you can have. Being a team performer thinks of the team as a whole and is not selfish in their views and decisions.

Wednesday, March 21, 2007


A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mostly for river and canal transport of important goods. Most barges are not self-propelled and need to be moved by tugboats towing or towboats pushing them. Barges on inland waterways (towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath) contended with the railway in the early industrial revolution but were out competed in the carriage of high value items owing to the higher speed, falling costs, and route elasticity of rail transport.
Barges are still used today for low value bulk items, as the cost of hauling goods by barge is very low. Barges are also used for very weighty or bulky items; a typical barge events 195 feet by 35 feet (59.4 meters by 10.6 meters), and can take up to 1500 tons of cargo.

Wednesday, February 21, 2007


The electron is a basic subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. It is a spin-½ lepton that participates in electromagnetic connections, and its mass is less than one thousandth of that of the smallest atom. Its electric charge is clear by convention to be negative, with a charge of -1 in atomic unit. Together with atomic nuclei, electrons make up atoms; their interaction with adjoining nuclei is the main cause of chemical bonding.
The electron is in the class of subatomic particles called leptons, which are supposed to be basic particles (that is, they cannot be broken down into smaller constituent parts).
As with all particles, electrons are able to act as waves. This is called the wave-particle duality; also known by the term complementarily coined by Niles Bohr and can be established using the double-slit experiment.

Monday, January 22, 2007

Mausoleum of Maussollos

In 377 BC, Halicarnassus was capital of a small kingdom along the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia. It was in that year the ruler of this land, Hecatomnus of Mylasa, died and left control of the kingdom to his son, Mausolus. Hecatomnus, a local satrap to the Persians, had been ambitious and had taken control of several of the neighboring cities and districts. Next to Mausolus and Artemisia he had several other sons and daughters: Ada, Idrieus, and Pixodarus. Mausolus in his time extended the territory even further so that it finally included most of southwestern Asia Minor. Maussollos, with his queen and sister Artemisia, ruled over Halicarnassus and the surrounding territory for 24 years. Maussollos, though he was descended from local people, spoke Greek and admired the Greek way of life and government. He founded many cities of Greek design along the coast and encouraged Greek democratic traditions.

Maussollos decided to build a new capital, a city as hard to capture as it was magnificent to look at. He chose the town Halicarnassus. If Mausolus' ships blocked a small channel, they could keep all enemy warships out. He started making Halicarnassus a fit capital for a warrior prince. His workmen deepened the city's harbor and used the dredged up sand to make protecting arms in front of the channel.

Tuesday, January 09, 2007

Fraternal twins

Fraternal twins usually occur when two fertilized eggs are implanted in the uterine wall at the same time. The two eggs form two zygotes, and these twins are therefore also known as dizygotic as well as "biovular" twins. When two eggs are independently fertilized by two different sperm cells, fraternal twins result.

Dizygotic twins, like any other siblings, have a very small chance of having the exact same chromosome profile, but most likely have a number of different chromosomes that distinguish them. Like any other siblings, fraternal twins may look very similar, particularly given that they are the same age. However, fraternal twins may also look very different from each other. They may be a different sex or the same sex. Mixed-race twins, or twins born to parents of mixed racial origin, can vary considerably in their skin colouration and other features.

Tuesday, January 02, 2007

Cellular differentiation

Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a "type". The morphology of a cell may change considerably during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions.

A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent. These cells are called stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that is able to distinguish into all cell types is known as totipotent. In mammals, only the zygote and early embryonic cells are totipotent, while in plants, many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques.

In most multicellular organisms, not all cells are alike. For example, cells that make up the human skin are different from cells that make up the inner organs. Yet, all of the different cell types in the human body are all derived from a single fertilized egg cell through differentiation.