Wednesday, December 27, 2006

Composing music

People who perform composition are called composers. Useful skills in composition include writing musical notation, instrumentation, and handling musical ensembles. The definition of composition has broadened to include extensive techniques such as improvisation, musical montage, preparing instruments, using non-traditional objects or methods of sound production, and make music from silence, as John Cage famously did.

Compositional techniques are the methods used to create music. In discussing the structure or association of a musical work, the "composition" of that work is generally called its musical form. These techniques draw a parallel to art's formal elements. Sometimes, the entire form of a piece is through-composed, meaning that each part is different, with no repetition of sections; other forms include strophic, rondo, verse-chorus, etc. Some pieces are composed around a set scale, where the compositional technique might be measured the usage of a particular scale. Others are composed during performance; techniques are sometimes used, however, in this case also.

Monday, December 18, 2006


An avalanche is a slide of a large snow down a mountainside, caused when a buildup of snow is released downward a slope, and is one of the major dangers faced in the mountains in winter. An avalanche is an example of a gravity present consisting of granular material.

In an avalanche, lots of material or mixtures of dissimilar types of material fall or slide rapidly under the force of gravity. Avalanches are often classified by what they are made of, for example snow, ice, rock or soil avalanches. A combination of these would be called a debris avalanche.

A large avalanche can run for many miles, and can create massive demolition of the lower forest and anything else in its path. For example, in Montroc, France, in 1999 300,000 cubic meters of snow slid on a 30 degree slope, achieving a speed of 100 km/h. It killed 12 people in their chalets under 100,000 tons of snow, 5 meters deep. The Mayor of Chamonix was convicted of second-degree murder for not evacuating the area, but received a suspended sentence.

Tuesday, December 12, 2006


Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that mainly focuses on weather processes and forecasting. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events which light up and are explained by the science of meteorology. Those events are bound by the variables that exist in Earth's atmosphere. They are temperature, pressure, water vapor, and the gradients and relations of each variable, and how they change in time. The majority of Earth's observed weather is situated in the troposphere.

Meteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology comprise the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology. Although the term meteorology is used today to explain a sub discipline of the atmospheric sciences, Aristotle's work is more general. The work touches upon much of what is known as the earth sciences. In his own words: All the affections we may call common to air and water, and the kinds and parts of the earth and the affections of its parts. One of the most impressive achievements in Meteorology is his description of what is now known as the hydrologic cycle.

Now the sun, moving as it does, the set up processes of change and becoming and decay, and by its agency the finest and sweetest water is every day carried up and is dissolved into vapor and rises to the upper region, where it is condensed again by the cold and so returns to the earth.

Tuesday, December 05, 2006


Rome is the capital city of Italy and of the Lazio province, as well as the country's major and most crowded comune, with concerning 2.5 million residents. It is situated in the central-western portion of the Italian peninsula, where the river Aniene joins the Tiber. As one of the prime cities in the European Union, the Comune di Roma has a gross domestic creation of €97 billion in the year 2005, equal to 6.7% of Italy's GDP the highest quantity of GDP produced by any single Italian comune. The current Mayor of Rome is Walter Veltroni.

According to fairy tale, the city of Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus on April 21, 753 BC. Archeological proof supports claims that Rome was inhabited since the 8th century BC and earlier. The city was the support of Roman civilization that shaped the largest and longest-lasting empire of classical antiquity that reached its maximum extent in 117. The city was essential and in charge for the spread of Greco-Roman culture that endures to this day. Rome is also recognized with Christianity and the Catholic Church and has been the Episcopal seat of the Popes since the 1st century. The State of the Vatican City, the monarch territory of the Holy See and smallest nation in the world, is an enclave of Rome.

Tuesday, November 28, 2006


Earth is the third planet in the planetary system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. It is also the major of its planetary system's terrestrial planets, making it the biggest solid body in the solar system, and it is the only place in the world known to humans to support life. It is also the densest planet in the solar system. The extensively accepted scientific theory states that the Earth was formed around 4.57 billion years ago and its natural satellite, the Moon, was orbiting it shortly subsequently, around 4.53 billion years ago.

Since it shaped, the Earth has altered through geological and biological processes that have secreted traces of the original conditions. The outer surface is divided into several tectonic plates that steadily migrate across the surface over geologic time spans. The interior of the earth remains active, with a thick layer of convecting up till now solid Earth covering and an iron core that generates a fascinating field. Its atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered by the presence of life forms, which create an ecological balance that modifies the surface circumstances. About 71% of the surface is covered in salt-water oceans, and the remainder consists of continents and islands.

Tuesday, September 05, 2006


Shepherding is one of the oldest professions, beginning some 6,000 years ago in Asia Minor. Sheep were kept for their milk, meat, and especially their wool. Over
the next millennia sheep and shepherding spread throughout Eurasia.
Some sheep were integrated in the family farm along with other animals such as pigs and chickens. To maintain a large herd, however, the sheep must be able to
move from pasture to pasture, this required the development of a profession separate from that of the farmer. The duty of shepherds was to keep their flock intact
and protect it from predators, such as wolves and keas. The shepherd was also to supervise the migration of the flock and ensured they made it to market areas in
time for shearing. In ancient times shepherds also often milked their sheep, and made cheese from this milk.
In many societies shepherds were an important part of the economy. Unlike farmers, shepherds were often wage earners, being paid to watch the sheep of others.
Shepherds also lived apart from society, being largely nomadic. It was mainly a job of solitary males without children, and new shepherds thus needed to be recruited
externally. Shepherds were most often the younger sons of farming peasants who did not inherit any land. Still in other societies, each family would have a family
member to shepherd its flock, often a child, youth or an elderly who couldn't help much with a harder work; these shepherds were fully integrated in society.
Shepherds would normally work in groups either looking after one large flock, or each bringing their own and merging their responsibilities. They would live in small
cabins, often shared with their sheep and would buy food from local communities. Less often shepherds lived in covered wagons that traveled with their flocks.

Wednesday, August 30, 2006

Google Earth designed for civil wangles

It’s very commonly known that Government agencies, qualified engineering firms, utilities and business developers are beneath rising stress to keep comprehensive teams, appraisal committees, customers and the common public regularly informed and updated about the position of projects. To help them, Autodesk Australia Pty Ltd. is bringing out Autodesk Civil 3D 2007 Extension for Google Earth-Technology Preview. The first type of publishing utility is planned especially for civil engineers and surveyors who require all elements introduced in a project. Civil engineers can speedily issue Civil 3D objects and design data in Google Earth with the help of wizard-driven interface. And lots more other features yet to be added. Yahoo Messenger is being used in ways it never was in the past: Jeff Bonforte - blogJeff Bonforte, the senior director of voice product management at yahoo recently said that “yahoo messenger is being used in ways it never was in the past”, because yahoo on Thursday proclaimed the general accessibility of its newest relevance, which permits users to do a lot more than just chat. The latest Yahoo Instant Messenger with Voice proffers telephony functions, with one hundred eighty plug-ins. popular ones are Yahoo Avatar Space, Yahoo Movie Trailer plug-in, Yahoo Finance, Pando plug-in for sharing file, YEmote for sharing secret emoticons, Yahoo Greetings eCard, Eazibo which permits users make flow charts and diagrams and share photos. This can all be done while chatting.

Monday, August 28, 2006

National Judiciary

National Judiciary:

The Supreme Court of India has creative, appellate and suggested jurisdiction. Elatedly having the original jurisdiction extends to any dispute between the Government of India and one or more states, or between the Government of India and any state or states on one side and one or more states on the other, or between two or more states, if and insofar as the dispute involves any question whether of law or of fact on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends. Addition to this is the article 32 of the Indian Constitution which gives an extensive original control to the Supreme Court in regard to enforcement of Fundamental Rights. The Supreme Court has been conferred with power to direct transfer of any civil or criminal case from one State High Court to another State High Court, or from a court subordinate to another State High Court.

Thursday, August 17, 2006


The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common device for playing recorded sound from the 1870s through the 1980sPhonographic recording device invented by Edouard-Leon Scott and the earliest known invention of it was the phonautograph patented on March 25, 1857. It could transcribe sound to a visible medium, but had no means to play back the sound after it was recorded. The device consists of a horn or barrel that focuses sound waves onto a membrane to which a hog's bristle was attached, causing the bristle to move and enabling it to inscribe a visual medium.

Friday, June 30, 2006

Gramophone record

A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove. Gramophone records were the primary technology used for personal music reproduction for most of the 20th century. They replaced the phonograph cylinder in the 1900s, and although they were supplanted in popularity in the late 1980s by digital media, they continue to be manufactured and sold as of 2006.

A sound recording and reproduction device utilizing what were essentially disk records was described by Charles Cros of France in 1877 but never built. In 1878, Thomas Edison independently built the first working phonograph, a tinfoil cylinder machine, intending it for use as a voice recording medium, typically for office dictation. The phonograph cylinder dominated the recorded sound market beginning in the 1880s. Disc records were invented by Emile Berliner in 1888, and were used exclusively in toys until 1894, when Berliner began marketing disk records under the Berliner Gramophone label. The Edison "Blue Amberol" cylinder was introduced in 1912, with a longer playing time of around 4 minutes (at 160 rpm) and a more resilient playing surface than its wax predecessor, but the format was doomed due to the difficulty of reproducing recordings. In the mid-1910s, disk records overtook cylinders in popularity, and would dominate the market until the 1980s. Production of Amberol cylinders ceased in the late 1920s.

Saturday, April 29, 2006

Collet chuck

A collet is a sleeve with a cylindrical inside and a conical outside. The collet has kerf cuts along its length to allow it to expand and contract. A threaded section at the rear of the collet is used to pull it into a matching conical socket. As the collet is pulled into the socket, the collet will contract - gripping the contents of the inner cylinder. Collets are most commonly found on milling machines, lathes, wood routers, and precision grinders. Collets can also be obtained to fit Morse or Brown and Sharpe taper sockets.

Typically collets offer far higher levels of precision and accuracy than self-centering chucks, and have a far shorter setting up time than independent-jaw chucks. The penalty is that most collets can only accommodate a single size of workpiece. An exception is ER collets which typically have a working range of 1mm. Air cylinders or collet chucks are made to hold cylindrical work, but are available to hold square, hexagonal or octagonal work pieces.

Wednesday, April 12, 2006

Distiller Water Filters

Water distillers use electricity to heat tap water to boiling point. Generally the Impurities are left in the container and the purified contents go back to a clean container. They need a higher level of efficiency or Water purifiers and cannot give immediate supply, because the boiling process must be over before water is present. There are a number of reports in that distilled water is not fit for health because it takes away nutrients from the body, being the most 'unnatural' of water.

Ionized Water Filters are generally filtered using an acid and an alkaline. They run between the positive and the negative ends of the electrodes and get the charged and acidic water. They are formed using 70% alkaline water and 30% Acid water. Alkaline and Acidic waters have unusual properties and benefits, but anyway their respective uses could not be more different.

Back flush Water Filters are costlier compared to charcoal filter units, but justify this by their claims of longevity. They are highly durable and efficient.

Wednesday, April 05, 2006

Casio digital piano

Prerecording tools like m-audio keyboard monitors, casio digital piano, and computer sound cards, recorder and audio interface. All these pro recording tools have unique features, channel mixer analogue, digital stereo effects, analog mixers, and digital effects. One pro recording tool, Alesis MultiMix 8USB Mixer with USB Audio has features of 3band EQ per channel, analogue mixer with USB, rack mount ears available.There is also the advantage of shopping by brand like multitrack recorders, Edirol, M-Audio, Casio Privia piano, Presonus and many more. All these brands have their own unique features and affordability factors. Gigasonic has a range of keyboards and MIDI tools in different packages. Firewire audio interface, Digital Pianos, synthesizers and accessories are also included.

Monday, March 27, 2006

Home Accents

Wall hangings are available in various designs to decorate your room. Enhance the beauty of your walls with our skillfully made wall hangings. They impart a heartening look to the walls. We have home accents like wall hangings done in metal and iron with dangling fish and rods attached to it.

Dolls are distinguished from action figures, which are generally of plastic or semi metallic construction and pose able to some extent, and exist largely for the purpose of marketing the television shows or films which feature the characters they are often modeled after. Modern action figures, such as Action Man, are often marketing towards boys, and dolls towards girls.

Disliking are toy dolls made by Unread. They originally came out as large Sissy-sized dolls. They were used as home decorations. They were later made as 11" multi-jointed dolls in brightly colored bodysuits with flowered sashes and plastic boots.

Friday, January 27, 2006

Advantages of debt consolidation

Advantages of debt consolidation
1. Reduction of average interest rate:Taking multiple credit interest rate (which varies from one credit card to another) in to account will have a high interest when compared to one single credit interest for the whole amount with a low interest rate. So an individual may choose this option to reduce his interest rate.2. Reduction to one credit payment:An individual may use many credit cards and pay his bills for all the credit cards. This may need a good management technique depending up on the number of cards in use. If you use more number of credit cards then the planning need to be done more appropriately and executed timely where as if you have one credit card your job is done in a way simple and easily executable. One hence opts to shift from multiple loan payments to one loan payment program replacing all the rest.3. Reduction of past interest or penalty charges:One opting for debt consolidation may go for reduction of past interest or penalty charges paid for the borrowed amount under certain options. Options include high interest rate or penalty charges placed for the credited amount, when the total amount paid in the history till date exceeds the borrowed amount, or if it is a very long duration payment program going for 5 yrs or above. Under each case stated one can reduce the past interest and penalty charges or sometimes even eliminate those and pay only the amount borrowed.4. Obtaining a payment plan:This payment plan is given to the consumer analyzing the capability of an individual by thoroughly going through the personal needs of an individual, his responsibilities etc after which the debt consolidator restructures the existing plans taken by the consumer.5. Becoming debt free at a faster rate:Taking debt consolidation program relieves a person from debts at a faster rate than the usual time, which is required to come out of the debt. Following the plans given by a debt consolidator and proper execution of the plan will surely make an individual debt free and obtain high credit scores.

Credit score

The credit score is calculated using a formula provided by the Fair Isaac Corporation under the act of FCRA (Fair Credit Reporting Act ). The three national bureaucrats dealing with credit reports are Equifax, Experian and Trans Union. The credit report can vary between these three credit bureaus since the credit reporters do not submit the reports in all three bureaus. Basically it is the procedure that one‘s credit report is the average taken from the values of these three bureaus. There may be a small difference existing between these bureaucracies credit reports which doesn’t seem to harm any of the customers credit score hence no issue has arisen till now in regards to the above.
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Grisaille painting

Grisaille is not a paintings type by its own but an initial step in oil painting. It is the step representing lighter shades of the image to be painted. This type grisaille grey is basically a painting in lighter grey shade (followed as per the rules of oil painting the darker painting section follows the lighter colors to be implemented in oil painting) before the whole painting is all done. This painting is executed entirely on monochrome in various shades of grey which can also be used for decorative purposes such as representing an object in relief.

Monday, January 23, 2006

Condition of a cricket ball

Condition of a cricket ball

A new, highly polished ball is used at the start of each innings in a match. A cricket ball may not be replaced except under specific conditions described in the Laws of Cricket:
If the ball becomes damaged or lost. If the condition of the ball is illegally modified by a player. If, after a specified number of overs (80 in Test cricket), the captain of the bowling side requests a new ball. The ball is not replaced if it is hit into the crowd - the crowd must return it (unlike in baseball). If the ball is damaged, lost, or illegally modified, it will be replaced by a used ball in similar condition to the replaced ball. A new ball can only be used after the specified minimum number of overs have been bowled with the old one.
Because a single ball is used for an extended period of play, its surface wears down and becomes rough. The bowlers will polish it whenever they can - usually by rubbing it on their trousers, producing the characteristic red stain that can often be seen there. However, they will usually only polish one side of the ball, in order to create 'swing' as it travels through the air. They may apply natural substances (i.e. saliva or sweat) to the ball as they polish it, but any other material is illegal.
The seam of a cricket ball can also be used to produce different trajectories through the air, with the technique known as swing bowling, or to produce sideways movement as it bounces off the pitch, with the technique known as seam bowling.
Since the condition of the cricket ball is crucial to the amount of movement through the air a bowler can produce, the laws governing what players may and may not do to the ball are specific and rigorously enforced. The umpires will inspect the ball frequently during a match. It is illegal for a player to:
rub any substance apart from saliva or sweat onto the ball rub the ball on the ground scuff the ball with any rough object, including the fingernails pick at or lift the seam of the ball. Despite these rules, it can be tempting for players to gain an advantage by breaking them. There have been a handful of incidents of so-called ball tampering at the highest levels of cricket, involving players such as Pakistani fast bowler Waqar Younis and former England captain Mike Atherton.
A new cricket ball is harder than a worn one, and is preferred by fast bowlers because of the speed and bounce of the ball as it bounces off the pitch. Older balls tend to spin more as the roughness grips the pitch more when the ball bounces, so spin bowlers prefer to use a worn ball. A captain may delay the request for a new ball if he prefers to have his spin bowlers operating, but usually asks for the new ball soon after it becomes available.
Cricket balls are notoriously hard, and potentially lethal. Frederick, Prince of Wales, is said to have died of complications after being hit by one, and Glamorgan player, Roger Davis, was almost killed by one. Raman Lamba was killed when hit on the head while fielding at forward short leg in a club match in Bangladesh. Hence today's batsmen and close fielders often wear protective headgear.
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